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Dalai Lamas

Dalai Lamas

Everyone is aware that Dalai Lama is the political and spiritual leader of Buddhism. But what exactly does Dalai Lama mean? The Dalai Lamas are believed to be manifestations of Avalokiteshvara or Chenrezig, the Bodhisattva of Compassion and the patron saint of Tibet. In Tibetan, Avalokitesvara […]

Mikhail Gorbachev

Mikhail Gorbachev

Nationality – Russian Most important point to note about him: He was the one who brought new reforms in USSR and end communism. His reforms brought an end to the cold war. That is why he is one of the important personality in world history. […]

How did World War I start and end?

How did World War I start and end?

British and German troops meeting in No-Man’s Land during the unofficial truce.

 

You may have heard that World War I started when a Serbian terrorist shot an Austro-Hungarian archduke in Sarajevo, Bosnia, in 1914. It’s true but much more complicated than that.

For one thing, the Serbians were angry with the Austro-Hungarian Empire (yes, it was a combination Austria and Hungary) for annexing Bosnia (even though Bosnia still technically belonged to the Ottoman Empire). The Austro-Hungarians worried about the Serbs’ potentially uniting all the Slavs in southeastern Europe, which could threaten the Hungarian part of their empire. Russia was mad at Austro-Hungary, too. The Russians saw that part of Europe, the Balkans, as their sphere of influence.

First World War. Image of a hospital dormitory, with men in beds and nurses standing up

 

Russia mobilized troops, which caused the Germans (allies of the Austro-Hungarian Empire) to declare war on both Russia and its ally France. In 1914, the Germans cut through neutral Belgium on the way to attack France. As relations between Britain and Germany were strained by an undeclared race between them for naval superiority, German troops crossing into Belgium gave the British an excuse to enter the war.

Eventually, Japan, Serbia, Portugal, Romania, Italy, and China joined the Allies (Britain, France, and Russia). The Ottoman Empire cast its lot with the Central Powers (Germany and Austro-Hungary).

In 1915, the British passenger liner Lusitania was sunk by a German submarine. In all, 1,195 passengers, including 128 Americans, lost their lives. Americans were outraged and put pressure on the U.S. government to enter the war. President Woodrow Wilson campaigned for a peaceful end to the war, but in 1917, when the Germans announced that their submarines would sink any ship that approached Britain (even more passenger ships), Wilson declared that America would enter the war and restore peace to Europe.

a captured British tank now bearing the German cross a curious crowd watches as fellow soldiers huddle on top trying to make it run

By 1918, German citizens were striking and demonstrating against the war. The British navy blocked German ports, which meant that thousands of Germans were starving and the economy was collapsing. Then the German navy suffered a major mutiny. After German Emperor Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated on November 9th, 1918, the leaders of both sides met at Compiegne, France. The peace armistice was signed on November 11th.

By the time it was said and done, four empires — the Russian, the Ottoman, the German, and the Austro-Hungarian had collapsed because of the war.

Algerian cavalry attached to the French Army, escorting a group of German prisoners taken in fighting in the west of Belgium.

In 1919, The Treaty of Versailles officially ended the War. But the Treaty was brutal towards Germany — requiring that Germany accept full responsibility for causing the war; make reparations to some Allied countries; surrender some of its territory to surrounding countries; surrender its African colonies; and limit the size of its military.

The Treaty also established the League of Nations to prevent future wars. The League of Nations helped Europe rebuild and fifty-three nations joined by 1923. But the U.S. Senate refused to let the United States join the League of Nations, and as a result, President Wilson (who had established the League) suffered a nervous collapse and spent the rest of his term as an invalid.

Although Germany joined the League in 1926, continuing resentment because of The Versailles Treaty caused them to withdraw (along with ally Japan) in 1933. Italy withdrew three years later. The organization subsequently proved helpless to stop German, Italian, and Japanese expansionism.

Some might argue that World War I never had an effective ending, but the battles just stopped. World War II never would have happened if not for World War I, because had the Germans not been beaten down so badly by the demands of The Treaty of Versailles, Adolf Hitler may not have risen to power in the 1930s and convinced the Germans to fight regain their dignity and place in the world.

Indira Feroze Khan or Indira Gandhi?

Indira Feroze Khan or Indira Gandhi?

Indira Priyadarshini Nehru married to Feroze Jehangir Gandhi in March 1942 according to Hindu rituals and adopted his surname. Feroze Gandhi born as Feroze Jehangir Ghandy to a Parsi family at the Tehmulji Nariman Hospital situated in Fort, Bombay, his parents, Faredoon Jehangir Ghandy and […]

Yeh Ishq Hai from Rangoon

Yeh Ishq Hai from Rangoon

Song – Yeh Ishq hai from Rangoon Gulzar and Vishal duo are always a hit. Both have a panache for music. Communion of Gulzar’s poetry and Vishal’s music can make you travel the heavens in mind, see the beauty with closed eyes, slowly making your […]

Ninth Avatar of Goddess Durga – GODDESS SIDDHIDATRI

Ninth Avatar of Goddess Durga – GODDESS SIDDHIDATRI

For destroying the cruelty of evil demons on the earth and for the welfare of the whole of humanity, goddess Durga descended on earth as her ninth form of Sri Siddhidatri. This form of the goddess is the epitome of completeness and prosperity. She is the suppressor of all the demons and giver of desired fruits to her devotees. Goddess Durga had killed all the egoistic demons between the first and the ninth day of the Navratri by taking various forms. As a result, all the auspicious tasks of humans and devatas gets accomplished. Hence this form of the goddess is popularly known as Siddhi-Daatri in the world. For fulfillment of all the desires and efforts of both humans and celestial beings, goddess Siddhidatri had manifested on an auspicious day. She is the giver of liberation and is the most auspicious. Because she is the giver of the highest goal of the human life (salvation) she is considered as Siddhidatri and is worshiped in this form. She if four armed goddess, in the upper right hand she holds a chakra and lower right hand is contained with mace. In the upper left hand she holds a conch and in the lower left hand, she holds a lotus flower. She has a divine garland in her neck. She is seated on a lotus altar. She has accepted the lion as her main vehicle. Goddess is the dispeller of obstacles, pains, diseases, sorrow, and fears. She is the one who readily blesses her devotees with abundance.

Mythological tale of Goddess Siddhidatri

Throughout the Puranic literature, we find many instances related to goddess Sri Siddhidatri. There are some important instances given in Durga Saptashati. Because of the power of this goddess one gets success, wealth, and prosperity in the lift. One is also able to remove the rifts of the family and enhances love and affection in the family. Hence one must understand that she is the omnipresent power of the universe. In one of the stories, the goddess herself reveals to the demon that who else exists in this world except me? All the forms of the goddess are verily me and they enter back in me. Forms of goddesses like Brahmani etc. then merged into the body of goddess Ambika. Then the only one remained was Sri Ambika. It was only me who manifested into many forms with my grandeur and power and they merged back in me. Now I am standing alone on the battlefield, now you also get ready for the battle. Then a great battle started between the goddess and demon Shumbha and also between devas and demons. Sages said that when great demon Shumbha was approaching near the goddess, she took her trident and pierced his chest after which he fell down. With this mighty attack, he was killed. When he fell on the ground he shook all the mountains, islands, oceans, and the entire earth. After the death of this demon, the whole world was happy and stable again, the sky also started to appear clearly than before.  The disastrous events such as rains and meteorite showers were then immediately stopped. After the death of Shumbha, the rivers also started flowing back in their natural course.

Eight Avatar of Goddess Durga – GODDESS MAHAGAURI

Eight Avatar of Goddess Durga – GODDESS MAHAGAURI

Mahagauri is the beautiful manifestation of Goddess Durga in her eighth form. She is worshiped on the eighth day of Navratri, more commonly known as Ashtami. Being a symbol of purity, serenity and tranquility, Mahagauri is said to put an end to all the suffering of her devotees. It is also believed […]

Seventh Avatar of Goddess Durga – GODDESS KAALRATRI

Seventh Avatar of Goddess Durga – GODDESS KAALRATRI

Goddess Kalratri, also known as Maa Kaali, is the seventh avatar of Goddess Durga. Devotees worship her on the seventh day of Navratri. They seek her blessings to eliminate all troubles from their lives. This form of Maa Durga is believed to destroy all demons, ghosts and negative energies. She is also […]

Sixth Avatar of Goddess Durga – GODDESS KATYAYANI

Sixth Avatar of Goddess Durga – GODDESS KATYAYANI

Whenever the oppression of the demons starts dominating the earth, whenever sages, saints, and celestial beings get victimized with the torture of the demons, then there is certainly a divine incarnation of supreme energy for the betterment of the world and suppression of the evil. In the same manner, goddess Bhagwati incarnated as Sri Katyayani for the sake of betterment of the world. She is the one who saved the entire universe from one of the greatest demons, Mahishasura by curbing his ego and destroying him along with his army. This divine form of goddess Durga is well known amongst the devotees in the name of Sri Katyayani. She grants fearlessness to the devotees and also blesses them readily by removing diseases, sorrows, obstacles, and guilt. Just by remembering her one attracts her divine blessings. As per the story found in the Durga Saptashati, for the betterment of devas, goddess manifested as Katyayani for saving them from evil demons. She manifested in the hermitage of sage Katyayana who worshiped the goddess as his daughter and hence she is known as Katyayani. She is the slayer of demons like mahisha and she is the manifestation of divine energies of Lord Brahma, Vishnu, and Maheshwara. The first ever mention of her worship is related to sage katyayana who achieved glory and liberation by the worship of goddess Katyayani. She made the sage famous by adopting his name as a blessing for his penance. Since then she was known as “Katyayani”. Her form is divine and she has four arms in which she holds various weapons. She holds a sword, lotus, fearlessness gesture, and blessing gesture. Goddess blesses one with successful life and also enhances his intellect and skills. She grants any desired fruits when asked with sincerity and purity. With her blessings, her devotees gain excellence in the respective fields to which they belong. They achieve greatest heights in their related areas.

Mythological Tale of goddess Sri Katyayani

For the betterment of the devotees, goddess Katyayani who is the form of Adi shakti manifested as the sixth form for removing the fears of the world due to the evil asuras. As per the legend, the first manifestation of this goddess for the welfare of celestial devas took place in the house of sage Katyayana. Sage accepted her as his daughter and worshiped her with devotion and hence she was known as “Kaatyaaayani”. In the ancient times when the world was suffering from the outrage of demon Mahishasura, the fruits of Vedic sacrifice were snatched from the devatas. All the celestial gods started thinking about some solution for ending this menace of demons and some way to establish righteousness. Finally, they decided to gather and invoke the primordial energy because none of the devas were able to win over this demon. This was because Mahishasur had a boon from the gods that he would be killed only by a female (feminine power) and hence male deities were not able to harm him. Because of pride and ego over his powers, the demon started misusing the power and tortured innocent beings. Gods gather and invoked a goddess from their own energies. She was known as Katyayani. With her divine powers, the goddess completed her mission by destroying mahisha demon on the final day of Navaratri. As per another ancient tale, a sage named Katyayana did heavy penance and asked for a great daughter as a boon as a result, goddess Katyayani took incarnation in his house and blessed him for his penance and rescued the world from the fear and darkness of demons.


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